what is the immune system made up of ?
what is the immune system made up of？
The immune system is made up of special organs, cells and chemicals that fight infection (microbes). The main parts of the immune system are: white blood cells, antibodies, the complement system, the lymphatic system, the spleen, the thymus, and the bone marrow.
Keeping this in consideration,What are the 2 main parts of the immune system?
There are 2 main parts of the immune system:
- The innate immune system. You are born with this.
- The adaptive immune system. You develop this when your body is exposed to microbes or chemicals released by microbes.
In this regard,What are the 4 main organs in the immune system?
Organs and tissues. Organs and tissues important to the proper functioning of the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow, lymph nodes and vessels, spleen, and skin.
Similarly,What type of cells is the immune system made up of?
The cells of the immune system can be categorized as lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells and NK cells), neutrophils, and monocytes/macrophages. These are all types of white blood cells.
Simply so,What controls immune system?
Antibodies attach to a specific antigen and make it easier for the immune cells to destroy the antigen. T lymphocytes attack antigens directly and help control the immune response. They also release chemicals, known as cytokines, which control the entire immune response.
Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. For example, the skin acts as a barrier to block germs from entering the body.
Bone marrow That is where most immune system cells are produced and then also multiply. These cells move to other organs and tissues through the blood.
Blood tests. Blood tests can determine if you have typical levels of infection-fighting proteins (immunoglobulins) in your blood and measure the levels of blood cells and immune system cells. Having numbers of certain cells in your blood that are outside of the standard range can indicate an immune system defect.
If an antigen enters the body and B-cells recognize it (either from having had the disease before or from being vaccinated against it), B-cells will produce antibodies. When antibodies attach to an antigen (think a lock–key configuration), it signals other parts of the immune system to attack and destroy the invaders.
In immunology and anatomy textbooks the bone marrow is described as a typical "primary lymphoid organ" producing lymphoid cells independent of antigens. The hematopoietic bone marrow is largely age-dependent organ with great anatomical and functional differences among various species.
There are two routes by which immune cells can enter LNs: leukocytes can arrive from the bloodstream by crossing high endothelial venules (HEVs) (5). Alternatively, tissue-resident immune cells can enter afferent lymphatic vessels and migrate to draining LNs (dLNs) (5–8).
(ih-MYOON SIS-tem) A complex network of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make that helps the body fight infections and other diseases. The immune system includes white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system, such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and bone marrow.
Also, infections like the flu virus, mono (mononucleosis), and measles can weaken the immune system for a brief time. Your immune system can also be weakened by smoking, alcohol, and poor nutrition.